Ferns are among the oldest kinds of plants that live on land. Scientists believe that ferns appeared on Earth more than 350 million years ago. Ferns differ from flowering plants mainly in the way they produce. They do not have seeds, but reproduce but means of microscopic spores, and they have fronds instead of true leaves. Microscopic spores are produced on the underside of these fronds, and these are scattered by the wind. When the spores land in suitably damp area, they sprout and grow into a tiny plant that develops small reproductive structures. Sperm fertilized the egg cell, which begins to grow as the tiny plant shivels and dies, and the complete fern begins to develop.
Bracken is considered a nuisance in pastures because it is poisonous to livestock. It is hard to get rid of because its rhizome reaches deep underground.